### Readings that outline the ideas of statistics and the uniqueness of statistics

Cobb, George. (1992). Teaching statistics. In Lynn A. Steen (Ed.), *Heeding the call for change: Suggestions for curricular action* (MAA Notes No. 22, pp. 3-43). Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

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Cobb, George, & Moore, David S. (1997). Mathematics, statistics, and teaching. *American Mathematical Monthly, 104*(9), 801-823.

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Moore, David S. (1990). Uncertainty. In Lynn S. Steen (Ed.), *On the shoulders of giants: New approaches to numeracy* (pp. 95-137). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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Moore, David S., Cobb, George W., Garfield, Joan, & Meeker, William Q. (1995). Statistics education fin de siècle. *The American Statistician, 49*(3), 250-260.

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Moore, David. (1997). New pedagogy and new content: The case of statistics. *International Statistics Review, 65*, 123-165.

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### Readings that summarize and synthesize the research literature

Garfield, Joan, & Ahlgren, Andrew. (1988). Difficulties in learning basic concepts in probability and statistics: Implications for research. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,19*(1), 44-63.

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Garfield, Joan. (1995). How students learn statistics. *International Statistical Review, 63*, 25-34.

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Konold, Clifford, & Higgins, Traci L. ( 2003). Reasoning about data. In Jeremy Kilpatrick, W. Gary Martin, & Deborah Schifter (Eds.), *A research companion to principles and standards for school mathematics* (pp. 193-215). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

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Lajoie, Susanne P., Jacobs, Victoria R., & Lavigne, Nancy C. (1995). Empowering children in the use of statistics. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 14*(4), 401-425.

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Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (1992). Research in probability and statistics: Reflections and directions. In Douglas A. Grouws (Ed.), *Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning* (pp. 465-494). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

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Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (2003). Research on students' understanding of probability. In Jeremy Kilpatrick, W. Gary Martin, & Deborah Schifter (Eds.), *A research companion to principles and standards for school mathematics* (pp. 216-226). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

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Shaughnessy, J. Michael, Garfield, Joan, & Greer, Brian. (1996). Data handling. In Alan J. Bishop, Ken Clements, Christine Keitel, Jeremy Kilpatrick, & Colette Laborde (Eds.), *International Handbook of Mathematics Education, I* (pp. 205-237). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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### Books on Statistics Education

Ben-Zvi, Dani, & Garfield, Joan. (Eds.). (2004). *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking*. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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Garfield, Joan, & Burrill, Gail. (Eds.). (1997). Research on the role of technology in teaching and learning statistics. *Proceedings of the 1996 IASE Round Table Conference*. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

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Hawkins, Anne, Jolliffe, Flavia, & Glickman, Leslie. (1992). *Teaching statistical concepts*. London: Longman.

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Lajoie, Susanne. (Ed.). (1998). *Reflections on statistics: Learning, teaching, and assessment in grades K-12*. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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### Readings on research issues in statistics education

Batanero, Carmen, Garfield, Joan B., & Ottaviani, M. Gabriella. (2001). Building a research agenda for statistics education: A response to reactions in SERN 2(1). *Statistical Education Research Newsletter, 2*(2), 9-14.

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Green, David. (1993). Data analysis: What research do we need? In Lionel Pereira-Mendoza (Ed.), Introducing data analysis in the schools: Who should teach it? *Proceedings of the 1992 ISI Round Table Conference*, 219-239. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

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Jolliffe, Flavia. (1998). What is research in statistical education? In Lionel Pereira-Mendoza, Lua Seu Kea, Tang Wee Kee, & Wing-Keung Wong (Eds.), Statistical Education: Expanding the Network. *Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Teaching of Statistics*, 801-806. Singapore: International Statistical Institute.

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Holcomb, John. (2002). The ethics of comparison: a statistician wrestles with the orthodoxy of a control group. In Pat Hutchings (Ed.), Ethical Issues in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Menlo Park, CA: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (1997). Missed opportunities in research on the teaching and learning of data and chance. In Fred Biddulph & Ken Carr (Eds.), People in mathematics education. *Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated, 1*, 6-22. Waikato, New Zealand: Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

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## Readings on Specific Topics in Statistics Education

### Classic studies of children's' intuitions about probability

Fischbein, Efraim. (1975). *The intuitive sources of probabilistic thinking in children*. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.

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Piaget, Jean, & Inhelder, Barbel. (1975). *The origin of the idea of chance in children*. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

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### Studies of reasoning about probability

Falk, Ruma, & Konold, Clifford. (1994). Random means hard to digest. *Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 16*(1), 2-12.

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Fong, Geoffrey T., Krantz, David H., & Nisbett, Richard E. (1986). The effects of statistical training on thinking about everyday problems. *Cognitive Psychology, 18*, 253-292.

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Kahneman, Daniel, Slovic, Paul, & Tversky, Amos. (Eds.). (1982). *Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases*. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Konold, Clifford. (1989). Informal conceptions of probability. *Cognition and Instruction, 6*, 59-98.

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Konold, Clifford, Pollatsek, Alexander, Well, Arnie, Lohmeier, Jill, & Lipson, Abigail. (1993). Inconsistencies in students' reasoning about probability. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 24*, 392-414.

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Lecoutre, Marie-Paule. (1992). Cognitive models and problem spaces in "purely random" situations. *Educational Studies in Mathematics, 23*, 557-568.

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Metz, Kathleen E. (1998). Emergent understanding and attribution of randomness: Comparative analysis of the reasoning of primary grade children and undergraduates. *Cognition and Instruction, 16*, 285-365.

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Pollatsek, Alexander, Konold, Clifford E., Well, Arnie D., & Lima, S. D. (1984). Beliefs underlying random sampling. *Memory & Cognition, 12*, 395-401.

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### Readings on technology in teaching statistics

Ben-Zvi, Dani. (2000). Towards understanding the role of technological tools in statistical learning. *Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2*(1-2), 127-155.

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Biehler, Rolf. (1997). Software for learning and for doing statistics. *International Statistical Review, 65*(2), 167-189.

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Hawkins, Anne. (1997). Myth-Conceptions!. In Garfield, Joan, & Burrill, Gail. (Eds.). (1997). Research on the role of technology in teaching and learning statistics. *Proceedings of the 1996 IASE Round Table Conference* (pp. 1-14). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

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### Readings on statistical reasoning or thinking

Cobb, Paul. (1999). Individual and collective mathematical learning: The case of statistical data analysis. *Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 1*(1), 5-44.

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delMas, Robert (2004). A comparison of mathematical and statistical reasoning. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 79-95)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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Jones, Graham A., Langrall, Cynthia W., Thornton, Carol A., & Mogill, A. Timothy. (1997). A framework for assessing and nurturing young children's thinking in probability. *Educational Studies in Mathematics, 32*, 101-125.

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Jones, Graham A., Thornton, Carol A., Langrall, Cynthia W., Mooney, Edward S., Perry, Bob, & Putt, Ian J. (2000). A framework for characterizing children's statistical thinking. *Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2*, 269-307.

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Lovett, Marsha, and Greenhouse, Joel B. (2000). Applying cognitive theory to statistics instruction. *The American Statistician, 54*(3), 196-206

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Lovett, Marsha C. (2001). A collaborative convergence on studying reasoning processes: A case study in statistics. In Sharon M. Carver and David Klahr (Eds.), *Cognition and instruction: twenty-five years of progress* (pp. 347-384). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Nisbett , Richard. (1993). *Rules for reasoning*. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Pfannkuch, Maxine, & Wild, Chris. (2004). Towards an understanding of statistical thinking. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 17-46)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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Sedlmeier, Peter. (1999). *Improving statistical reasoning: Theoretical models and practical implications*. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Wild, Chris, & Pfannkuch, Maxine. (1999). Statistical thinking in empirical enquiry. *International Statistical Review, 67*, 223-266.

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### Readings on statistical literacy

Cobb, George W. (1997). Mere literacy is not enough. In Lynn A. Steen (Ed.), *Why numbers count: Quantitative literacy for tomorrow's America* (pp. 75-90). New York: College Entrance Examination Board.

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Gal, Iddo. (2002). Adults' statistical literacy: Meanings, components, responsibilities. *International Statistical Review*, *70*, 1-51.

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Wallman, Katherine K. (1993). Enhancing statistical literacy: Enriching our society. *Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88*(421), 1-8.

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### Readings on student assessment

Chance, Beth L. (1997). Experiences with authentic assessment techniques in an introductory statistics course. *Journal of Statistics Education, 5*(3). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v5n3/chance.html

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Gal, Iddo, & Garfield, Joan. (Eds.). (1997). *The assessment challenge in statistics education*. Amsterdam: IOS Press and International Statistical Institute.

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Garfield, Joan (1994). Beyond testing and grading: Using assessment to improve student learning. *Journal of Statistics Education, 2*(1). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v2n1/garfield.html

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Garfield, Joan, & Gal, Iddo. (1999). Assessment and statistics education: Current challenges and directions. *International Statistical Review, 67*(1), 1-12.

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Konold, Clifford. (1995). Issues in assessing conceptual understanding in probability and statistics. *Journal of Statistics Education, 3*(1). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v3n1/konold.html

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Zawojewski, Judith S., & Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (2000). Data and chance. In Edward A. Silver & Patricia A. Kenney (Eds.), *Results from the seventh mathematics assessment of the national assessment of educational progress* (pp. 235-268). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

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### Research on specific types of reasoning

*Data*

Ben-Zvi, Dani. (2004). Reasoning about data analysis. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 121-145)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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Ben-Zvi, Dani, & Arcavi, Abraham. (2001). Junior high school students' construction of global views of data and data representations. *Educational Studies in Mathematics, 45*(1-3), 35-65.

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Hancock, Chris, Kaput, James J., & Goldsmith, Lynn T. (1992). Authentic inquiry with data: Critical barriers to classroom implementation. *Educational Psychologist, 27*(3), 337-364.

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Lehrer, Richard, & Romberg, Thomas. (1996). Exploring children's data modeling. *Cognition and Instruction, 14*(1), 69-108.

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*Averages*

Mokros, Jan, & Russell, Susan J. (1995). Children's concepts of average and representativeness. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26*(1), 20-39.

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Konold, Clifford, & Pollatsek, Alexander. (2002). Data analysis as the search for signals in noisy processes. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 33*(4), 259-289.

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Noss, Richard, Pozzi, Stefano, & Hoyles, Celia. (1999). Touching epistemologies: Meanings of average and variation in nursing practice. *Educational Studies in Mathematics, 40*, 25-51.

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*Correlation and Covariation*

Cobb, Paul, McClain, Kay, & Gravemeijer, Koeno. (2002). Learning about statistical covariation. *Cognition and Instruction, 21*(1), 1-78.

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Moritz, Jonathan (2004). Reasoning about covariation. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 227-255)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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Ross, John A., & Cousins, J. Bradley. (1993). Patterns of student growth in reasoning about correlational problems. *Journal of Educational Psychology, 85*(1), 49-65.

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*Distribution and Graphs*

Bakker, Arthur, & Gravemeijer, Koeno. (2004). Learning to reason about distribution. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 147-168)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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Bakker, Arthur. (2004). Reasoning about shape as a pattern in variability. *Statistics Education Research Journal,* 3(2), 64-83.

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Curcio, Frances R. (1987). Comprehension of mathematical relationships expressed in graphs. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 18*(5), 382-393.

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Friel, Susan N., Curcio, Frances R., & Bright, George W. (2001), Making sense of graphs: Critical factors influencing comprehension and instructional implications. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 32*(2), 124-158.

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*Variability*

Gould, Rob. (2004).Variability: One statistician's view. *Statistics Education Research Journal,* *3*(2), 7-16.

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Meletiou, Maria. (2002). Conceptions of variation: A literature review. *Statistics Education Research Journal*, *1*(1), 46-52.

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Reading, Chris. (2004). Student description of variation while working with weather data. *Statistics Education Research Journal,* 3(2),84-105.

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Reading, Chris, & Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (2004). Reasoning about variation. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 201-226)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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*Sampling*

Rubin, Andee, Bruce, Betram, & Tenney, Y. (1991). Learning about sampling: Trouble at the core of statistics. In David Vere-Jones (Ed*.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Teaching Statistics, 1*, 314-319). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.

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Schwartz, Daniel L., Goldman, Susan R., Vye, Nancy J., & Barron, Brigid J. (1998). Aligning everyday and mathematical reasoning: The case of sampling assumptions. In Susanne P. Lajoie (Ed.), *Reflections on statistics: Learning, teaching, and assessment in grades K-12* (pp. 233-273). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Watson, Jane M. (2004). Developing reasoning about samples. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 277-294)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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Watson, Jane M., & Moritz, Jonathan B. (2000). Developing concepts of sampling. *Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 31*(1), 44-70.

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*Sampling distributions*

delMas, Robert C., Garfield, Joan, & Chance, Beth L. (1999). A model of classroom research in action: Developing simulation activities to improve students' statistical reasoning. *Journal of Statistics Education, 7*(3). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/secure/v7n3/delmas.cfm

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Chance, Beth, delMas Robert, & Garfield, Joan. (2004). Reasoning about sampling distributions. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), *The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking* (pp. 295-323)*.* Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

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*Inference*

Watson, Jane M. (2002). Inferential reasoning and the influence of cognitive conflict. *Educational Studies in Mathematics, 51,* 225 - 256*.*

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Watson, Jane M., & Moritz, Jonathan B. (1999). The beginning of statistical inference: Comparing two data sets. *Educational Studies in Mathematics, 37*, 145-168.

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The CAUSE Research Group is supported in part by a member initiative grant from the American Statistical Association’s Section on Statistics and Data Science Education