Limit Theorems

  • Using a parameter it's possible to represent a property of an entire population with a single number instead of millions of individual data points. There are a number of possible parameters to choose from such as the median, mode, or interquartile range. Each is calculated in a different manner and illuminates the data from a different point of view. The mean is one of the most useful and widely used and helps us understand populations. A population is simulated by generating 10,000 floating point random numbers between 0 and 10. Sample means are displayed in histograms and analyzed.
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  • This is a virtual applet, which models repeaded coin tossing by a random number generator. It allows you to change the number of tosses as well as runs and records your results.
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  • In these activities designed to introduce sampling distributions and the Central Limit Theorem, students generate several small samples and note patterns in the distributions of the means and proportions that they themselves calculate from these samples. Outside of class, students generate samples of dice rolls and coin spins and draw random samples from small populations for which data is given on each individual. Students report their sample means and proportions to the instructor who then compiles the results into a single data file for in-class exploration of sampling distributions and the Central Limit Theorem. Key words: Sampling distribution, sample mean, sample proportion, central limit theorem

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  • This article describes an interactive activity illustrating general properties of hypothesis testing and hypothesis tests for proportions. Students generate, collect, and analyze data. Through simulation, students explore hypothesis testing concepts. Concepts illustrated are: interpretation of p-values, type I error rate, type II error rate, power, and the relationship between type I and type II error rates and power. This activity is appropriate for use in an introductory college or high school statistics course. Key words: hypothesis test on a proportion, type I and II errors, power, p-values, simulation
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  • This activity leads students to appreciate the usefulness of simulations for approximating probabilities. It also provides them with experience calculating probabilities based on geometric arguments and using the bivariate normal distribution. We have used it in courses in probability and mathematical statistics, as well as in an introductory statistics course at the post-calculus level. Students are expected to approximate the solution through simulation before solving it exactly. They are also expected to employ graphical as well as algebraic problem-solving strategies, in addition to their simulation analyses. Finally, students are asked to explain intuitively why it makes sense for the probabilities to change as they do. Key words: simulation, probability, geometry, independence, bivariate normal distribution
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  • The program DistCalc calculates probabilities and critical values for the most important distributions. The purpose of this program is to show the concept of critical values and the replacement of printed distribution tables. The Distribution Calculator offers calculations for the normal distribution, the t distribution, the chi-square distribution, and the F distribution.

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  • This course site contains a complete set of course materials, including lecture notes, assignments and exams. This subject is a computer-oriented introduction to probability and data analysis. It is designed to give students the knowledge and practical experience they need to interpret lab and field data. The MATLAB?? programming language is used to perform virtual experiments and to analyze...
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  • This applet demonstrates that even a "small" effect can be important under some circumstances. Applicants from two groups apply for a job. The user manipulates the mean and the cut-off score in order to see the effects the small changes has on the number of people hired in each group. The effects on the proportion of hired applicants from each group are displayed.(Requires a browser that supports Java).
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  • The applet allows users to sample from a normal distribution or from a uniform distribution. It shows the expected values and the observed values and computes the deviation. Then, a chi-square test shows if the deviations are significant for both the normal and uniform distributions.
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  • This applet simulates experiments using 2 x 2 contingency tables. You specify the population proportions and the sample size and examine the effects on the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis.
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