# Elementary Probability

• ### Star Library: The Role of Probability in Discrimination Cases

An important objective in hiring is to ensure diversity in the workforce. The race or gender of individuals hired by an organization should reflect the race or gender of the applicant pool. If certain groups are under-represented or over-represented among the employees, then there may be a case for discrimination in hiring. On the other hand, there may be a number of random factors unrelated to discrimination, such as the timing of the interview or competition from other employers, that might cause one group to be over-represented or under-represented. In this exercise, we ask students to investigate the role of randomness in hiring, and to consider how this might be used to help substantiate or refute charges of discrimination. Key words: Probability distribution, binomial distribution, computer simulation, decision rules
• ### Data Collections+Activities+Examples: DIG Stats: Inferential Statistics

This module contains discussions on t-test, ANOVA, correlation, two-way factorial ANOVA, regression, chi-squared, and distributions and provides links to a variety of activities relevant to the discussions.
• ### A "Small" Effect Size Can Make a Large Difference

This applet demonstrates that even a "small" effect can be important under some circumstances. Applicants from two groups apply for a job. The user manipulates the mean and the cut-off score in order to see the effects the small changes has on the number of people hired in each group. The effects on the proportion of hired applicants from each group are displayed.(Requires a browser that supports Java).
• ### DAU StatRefresher: Basic Probability

This interactive tutorial on Basic Probability helps students understand the basic concepts of probability, define independent and compound events, use the basic properties of probability, understand the concept of conditional probability, and solve exercise problems using basic probability.
• ### DAU StatRefresher: Random Variables

This tutorial on Random Variables helps students understand the definition of random variables, recognize and use discrete random variables, recognize and use continuous random variables, and solve exercise problems using random variables.
• ### DAU StatRefresher: Probability - Self Test

This self-test provides a review/assessment of the Probability section of this module. At the bottom, there is a grading button to rate the users' understanding of the material.
• ### DAU StatRefresher: Final Test

This module is a short quiz which gives a review/assessment of the main concepts for this refresher course. At the bottom, there is a grading button to rate the understanding of the material.
• ### Video: Against All Odds: 23. Control Charts

In this free online video program, "the successes of casino owners and the manufacturing industry are used to demonstrate the use of the central limit theorem. One example shows how control charts allow us to effectively monitor random variation in business and industry. Students will learn how to create x-bar charts and the definitions of control limits and out-of-control limits."
• ### Project #2: Probability Summary

This assignment has students investigate whether the risk of having a child with a low birth weight is higher when the mother drinks and smokes during pregnancy. The data set represents a random sample of 1450 births from the state of North Carolina.
• ### JMP Tutorials

This site has Youtube video tutorials and screen capture tutorials about how to make graphical displays and perform statistical tests using JMP.