# Resource Library

#### Statistical Topic

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• ### Case Teaching Notes for "Markov vs. Markov"

Teacher instructions to accompany "Markov vs. Markov" case study found at http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/markov/markov.html.
• ### Age-Structured Population Growth Applet

This applet allows you to manipulate the starting population, age-class survival rates, and age-class fecundity rates over 10 generations for up to 6 age classes. The default gives you the same population size for each age class as well as the same fecundity rate and survival rates. Move the sliders for each age class to manipulate each of these factors. You will see the relative proportions of each age class will change over time, but will eventually reach a stable age distribution.
• ### Law of Large Numbers (Chapter 8)

Part of an online statistics textbook. Topics include: (1) Law of Large Numbers for Discrete Random Variables, (2) Chebyshev Inequality, (3) Law of Averages, (4) Law of Large Numbers for Continuous Random Variables, (5) Monte Carlo Method. There are several examples and exercises that accompany the material.
• ### Confidence Intervals

This resource assists the user in reading, constructing, and understanding confidence intervals.
• ### Significance Level

This resource briefly explains what a significance level is and how they are used in hypothesis testing. It also includes other links related to significance level such as "Type I error" and "significance test".
• ### Interpreting Statistical p-values

This page discusses the understanding of and interpretation of p-values for those who read articles with statistical information.
• ### **Introduction to hypothesis testing -- The z-test

This exercise will help the user understand the logic and procedures of hypothesis testing. To make best use of this exercise, the user should know how to use a z table to find probabilities on a normal distribution, and how to calculate the standard error of a mean. Relevant review materials are available from the links provided. The user will need a copy of the hypothesis testing exercise (link is provided), a table for the standardized normal distribution (z), and a calculator. The user will be asked several questions and will be given feedback regarding their answers. Detailed solutions are provided, but users should try to answer the questions on their own before consulting the detailed solutions. The end of the tutorial contains some "thought" questions.
• ### Internal Validity Tutorial

This tutorial introduces 9 sources of threat to internal vailidity and asks the user to classify hypothetical experiments as either internally valid or invalid and identify the source of threat if invalid.
• ### Simulation of the t-distribution

The t-distribution activity is a student-based in-class activity to illustrate the conceptual reason for the t-distribution. Students use TI-83/84 calculators to conduct a simulation of random samples. The students calculate standard scores with both the population standard deviation and the sample standard deviation. The resulting values are pooled over the entire class to give the simulation a reasonable number of iterations.
• ### Sampling Distributions (Presentation 7)

This PowerPoint presentation teaches sampling distributions related to proportions and means using multiple examples, charts, and graphs.