# Teaching

• ### Mean or meaningless?

This article describes actitivies that can be used to teach elementary school students about the concept of the arithmetic mean.

• ### Assessing statistical knowledge as it relates to students' interpretation of data

The chapter examines the nature of interpretive skills that students need to acquire in statistics education, with a special focus on the role of students' opinions about data. Issues in the elicitation and evaluation of students' opinions are examined, and implications for assessment practices and teacher training are discussed.

• ### Visualizing hypothesis tests

Three software modules were created to help students learn to visualize hypothesis tests, based either on scenarios or on a Do-It-Yourself control panel to set up the experiment. The one-sample and two-sample modules illustrate tests of means or variances. For each sample, there is a dot plot with optional overlays of the populations or sampling distributions, table of statistics and parameters, confidence intervals, and theoretical distribution of the test statistic with the rejection region shaded. The ANOVA module offers stacked dot plots, ANOVA table, and sample statistics. Each module allows replication experiments to estimate empirical Type I or II error. There is an extensive help system. Software has been tested on students. The modules are part of an NSF-supported project to enhance quantitative reasoning and motivate students.

• ### Eight features of an ideal introductory statistics course

This paper discusses the following features of the author's ideal introductory statistics course: (1) a clear statement of the goals of the course, (2) a careful discussion of the fundamental concept of 'variable', (3) a unification of statistical methods under the concept of a relationship between variables, (4) a characterization of hypothesis testing that is consistent with standard empirical research, (5) the use of practical examples, (6) the right mix of pedagogical techniques: lectures, readings, discussions, exercises, activities, group work, multimedia, (7) a proper choice of computational technology, and (8) a de-emphasis of less important topics such as univariate distributions, probability theory, and the mathematical theory of statistics. The appendices contain (a) recommendations for research to test different approaches to the introductory course and (b) discussion of thought-provoking criticisms of the recommended approach.

• ### Fourth graders invent ways of computing averages

The purpose of this article is to describe what fourth graders can do when they are encouraged to invent their own ways of getting the average. The article also shows the teacher's active role in constructivist teaching.

• ### A learning and assessment model in teaching statistics

This report deals with the use of portfolios in assessing student performance in statistics. It gives a background on the use of portfolios, information on portfolio development, and issues surrounding portfolio assessment. It also provides a sketch of what a portfolio in statistics might look like.

• ### Resampling: A tool for everyday statistical work

This article discusses the use of data to "simulate" sampling from a population. The authors claim that their approach, termed "resampling", offers a powerful heuristic for solving statistical problems.