# Sample Size Determination

• ### Cartoon: Moving Company

A cartoon that can be used in discussing how choosing an appropriate sample size must balance budget and logistics along with statistical power. The cartoon was used in the April 2023 CAUSE cartoon caption contest and the winning caption was written by retired AP Statistics teacher Jodene Kissler.  The cartoon was drawn by British cartoonist John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea by Dennis Pearl from Penn State University.  An alternate caption for the cartoon might be “The Negative Correlation Moving Company had trouble holding on to their shorter employees,” that can be used to discuss the difference between positive and negative associations.

• ### Cartoon: Power Outage

A cartoon to provide a nice avenue for facilitating discussions of power in significance testing.The cartoon was used in the November, 2017 CAUSE cartoon caption contest and the winning caption was written by John Dawson from Texas Tech University. The cartoon was drawn by British cartoonist John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea by Dennis Pearl from Penn State University.

• ### Cartoon: Magic Act

A cartoon to provide a nice avenue for facilitating discussions of planning for adequate sample sizes in experiments.The cartoon was used in the October, 2017 CAUSE cartoon caption contest and the winning caption was written by Greg Snow from Grigham Young University. The cartoon was drawn by British cartoonist John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea by Dennis Pearl from Penn State University.

• ### Logistic Regression

This presentation is a part of a series of lessons on the Analysis of Categorical Data. This lecture covers the following: maximum likelihood estimation for logistic regression, sample size requirements for approximate normality of the MLE’s, confidence intervals, likelihood ratio statistic, score test statistic, deviance, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic, the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic, parameter estimates, scaled/unscaled estimates, residuals, grouped binomials, and model building strategies.

• ### Penn State STAT 800: Introduction to Applied Statistics

This is a graduate level introduction to statistics including topics such as probabilty/sampling distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, ANOVA, and regression.  Perfect for students and teachers wanting to learn/acquire materials for this topic.

• ### Penn State STAT 509: Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials

This is a graduate level survey course that stresses the concepts of statistical design and analysis in biomedical research, with special emphasis on clinical trials. Perfect for students and teachers wanting to learn/acquire materials for this topic.

• ### Penn State STAT 506: Sampling Theory and Methods

The aim of this course is to cover sampling design and analysis methods that would be useful for research and management in many field. A well designed sampling procedure ensures that we can summarize and analyze data with a minimum of assumptions and complications. Perfect for both students and teachers wanting to learn/acquire materials for this topic.

• ### Sample Sizes

This resource discusses sample sizes and how they are chosen.
• ### Stats: Sample Size Determination

This resource provides the user with a formula for obtaining sample sizes of a mean and proportion.
• ### P Values and Statistical Significance

This resource defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing.