# Assumptions

• ### Joke: Another Light Bulb

A light bulb joke that can be used in discussing how the choice of model might affect the conclusions drawn.  The joke was submitted to AmStat News by Robert Weiss from UCLA and appeared on page 48 of the October, 2018 edition.

• ### Categorical Data Analysis & Generalized Linear Models

Includes detailed PowerPoints for 20 lectures for topics including generalized linear models, logistic regression, and random effects models.

• ### Song: Every Assumption You Make

A song about the different assumptions needed for parametric statistical methods and the importance of checking how well they hold and what effect they may have on the results and conclusions. The lyrics were written in 2017 by Dennis K. Pearl from Penn State University and may be sung to the tune of "Every Breath You Take" written by Sting and made popular by The Police on their 1983 album "Synchronicity." Audio of the parody was produced and sung by students in the commercial music program of The University of Teas at El Paso.

• ### Confidence Intervals for A Population Mean: Investigating the Normality Assumption

This is a youtube video by Jeremy Balka that was published in May 2013. The video presents a discussion of the assumptions when using the t distribution in constructing a confidence interval for the population mean. By considering various population distributions, the effect of different violations of the normality assumption is investigated through simulation.
• ### Poem: Scaffolding

"Scaffolding" is a poem by Scottish poet Eveline Pye from Glasgow Caledonin University. The poem was originally published in the September 2011 issue of the bimonthly magazine Significance, in an article about Eveline Pye's statistical poetry. "Scaffolding" might be used in course discussions of the importance of checking assumptions in the application of statistical methods or of the value of statistical sleuthing in discovering hidden relationships.
• ### Quote: Bohm on The Laws of Chance

Indeed, the laws of chance are just as necessary as the causal laws themselves. is a quote of quantum physicist David J. Bohm (1917- 1992). The quote appears on page 23 of his 1957 book "Causality and Chance in Modern Physics". The quote also appears in "Statistically Speaking: A dictionary of quotations" compiled by Carl Gaither and Alma Cavazos-Gaither.
• ### Quote: Colbert on Polls

I know there are some polls out there saying this man has a 32% approval rating. But guys like us, we don't pay attention to the polls. We know that polls are just a collection of statistics that reflect what people are thinking in reality. And reality has a well-known liberal bias. is a quote by American political satirist Stephen Tyrone Colbert (1964 - ). The quote is from a performance on April 29, 2006 at the annual White House Correspondents' Association Dinner.

• ### Quote: Shaw on Assumptions

Even trained statisticians often fail to appreciate the extent to which statistics are vitiated by the unrecorded assumptions of their interpreters is a quote by Irish playwright George Benard Shaw (1856 - 1950). The quote may be found in the author's preface to his 1906 play "The Doctor's Dilemma", that contains an essay on his views of statistics and quantitative literacy amongst the public.

• ### Song: A Sample that's Skewed

A song about examining the assumptions in statistical procedures especially dealing with skewed distributions. The lyrics were written by Robert Carver of Stonehill College and were awarded second place in the song category of the 2011 CAUSE A-Mu-sing competition. The song is a parody of the 1961 classic pop song "Runaround Sue" written by Ernie Maresca and Dion DiMucci and sung by Dion backed by the vocal group, The Del-Satins. Musical accompaniment realization and vocals are by Joshua Lintz from University of Texas at El Paso.

• ### Quote: Ford on chance

There is no such thing as no chance is a quote by American businessman and founder of the Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford (1863-1947). The quote is from a speech given to the 1930 class of students at Edison Laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. It is referred to on page 14 of the 1930 book "American Florist".