# Resource Library

#### Statistical Topic

Advanced Search | Displaying 101 - 110 of 2225
• ### Song: Divvy up the Stakes

A song about the Problem of Points, whose discussion in the 17th century led to the foundations of probability theory and expected value.  The lyric was written in 2017 by Lawrence M Lesser from The University of Texas at El Paso and may be sung to the tune of the Sting #1 1983 Grammy-winning hit “Every Breath You Take”.  The audio recording was produced by Nicolas Acedo with vocals by Alejandra Nunez Vargas, both students in the Commercial Music Program at The University of Texas at El Paso.

• ### Song: I Will Find U

Song about the use of the Mann-Whitney U statistic (also known as the two sample Wilcoxon statistic). May be sung to the tune of "I Will Find You" by Peter Hammill; Fie Records, 1991. The audio was produced by Nicolas Acedo and sung by Jorge Baylon, both students in the University of Texas at El Paso Commercial Music Program.

• ### Song: Means Will Follow You

A song describing how sample means will follow the normal curve regardless of how skewed the population histogram is, provided n is very large.  The lyrics were written by Dennis Pearl and Peter Sprangers, both then at The Ohio State University.  The audio recording was produced by The University of Texas at El Paso student Nicolas Acedo who also performed the vocals

• ### Song: Simulation!

A song to introduce the basic idea of using simulation to calculate a P-value for a randomization test (by simulating lots of group assignments and seeing what proportion of them give more extreme test statistics than observed with the actual group assignments).  The lyrics were written in November 2018 by Larry Lesser from The University of Texas at El Paso and Dennis Pearl from Penn State University. May be sung to the tune of the 1980 number #1 song “Celebration” by Kool and the Gang. Audio of the parody was produced and sung by students in the commercial music program of The University of Teas at El Paso.

• ### Song: You've Got a Trend

A song to aid in teaching about time series plots and the three principal things to look for in them: long term trends, seasonal or other cyclic patterns, and random fluctuations. The song may to sung to the tune of "You've Got a Friend" by Carole King from her 1971 Tapestry album (and later popularized by James Taylor). The lyrics to the parody were written in 2017 by Dennis K Pearl from Penn State University and Lawrence M Lesser from The University of Texas at El Paso. The audio was produced by Nicolas Acedo with vocals by Erika Araujo, both students in the Commercial Music Program at The University of Texas at El Paso.

• ### Song: (This is How) Stats are Like Diamonds

A song to encourage students to use critical thinking skills in evaluating a statistic published in the media. The 2002 JSM paper (http://www.statlit.org/pdf/2002BestASA.pdf) of sociologist Joel Best and feedback from Milo Schield gave Lawrence Lesser (The University of Texas at El Paso) inspiration to explore what it means to say statistics are socially constructed. The song is a parody of the Beatles' "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds." The lyrics were originally published in the August 2016 Amstat News. Audio of the parody was produced and sung by students in the commercial music program of The University of Texas at El Paso.

• ### Cartoon: Selection Bias

A cartoon that can be used in discussing the issue of selection bias. The cartoon appeared as number 2618 (June, 2022) in the web comic xkcd by Randell Patrick Munroe (http://www.xkcd.com/2618/).

• ### Song: Empirical Rule

A song to help students remember the empirical rule that it is rare to see an observation more than three sd's away from the mean, while about 19 out of 20 will fall within two sd's and about 2 out of 3 within one sd.  The lyrics were weritten in 2017 by Lawrence M Lesser from The University of Texas at El Paso and may be sung to the tune of "Material Girl" written by Peter Brown and Robert Rans and populartized by Madonna. Audio of the parody was produced by Nicolas Acedo Aguilar and sung by Alexandria Campos, students in the commercial music program of The University of Texas at El Paso.

• ### Using Statistics Effectively in Mathematics Education Research

Funded by the National Science Foundation, workshops were held over a three-year period, each with about twenty participants nearly equally divided between mathematics educators and statisticians. In these exchanges the mathematics educators presented honest assessments of the status of mathematics education research (both its strengths and its weaknesses), and the statisticians provided insights into modern statistical methods that could be more widely used in such research. The discussions led to an outline of guidelines for evaluating and reporting mathematics education research, which were molded into the current report. The purpose of the reporting guidelines is to foster the development of a stronger foundation of research in mathematics education, one that will be scientific, cumulative, interconnected, and intertwined with teaching practice. The guidelines are built around a model involving five key components of a high-quality research program: generating ideas, framing those ideas in a research setting, examining the research questions in small studies, generalizing the results in larger and more refined studies, and extending the results over time and location. Any single research project may have only one or two of these components, but such projects should link to others so that a viable research program that will be interconnected and cumulative can be identified and used to effect improvements in both teaching practice and future research. The guidelines provide details that are essential for these linkages to occur. Three appendices provide background material dealing with (a) a model for research in mathematics education in light of a medical model for clinical trials; (b) technical issues of measurement, unit of randomization, experiments vs. observations, and gain scores as they relate to scientifically based research; and (c) critical areas for cooperation between statistics and mathematics education research, including qualitative vs. quantitative research, educating graduate students and keeping mathematics education faculty current in education research, statistics practices and methodologies, and building partnerships and collaboratives.

• ### Song: Random Sample

This song covers some major real-world examples in the history of random sampling. The lyric was written in 2017 by Lawrence M Lesser from The University of Texas at El Paso and can be sung to the tune of theHarry Casey and Richard Finch song “(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty” that was a 1976 #1 hit for KC and the Sunshine Band.  Audio of the parody was produced and sung by students in the commercial music program of The University of Teas at El Paso.