# Simulation

• ### How well can hand size predict height?

This activity is an example of Cooperative Learning in Statistics. It uses student's own data to introduce bivariate relationship using hand size to predict height. Students enter their data through a real-time online database. Data from different classes are stored and accumulated in the database. This real-time database approach speeds up the data gathering process and shifts the data entry and cleansing from instructor to engaging students in the process of data production. Key words: Regression, correlation data collection, body measurements
• ### *Investigating the Modernity of the University Library

This activity makes use of a campus-based resource to develop a "capstone" project for a survey sampling course. Students work in small groups and use a complex sampling design to estimate the number of new books in the university library given a budget for data collection. They will conduct a pilot study using some of their budget, receive feedback from the instructor, then complete data collection and write a final report.
• ### How well can hand size predict height?

This activity uses student's own data to introduce bivariate relationship using hand size to predict height. Students enter their data through a real-time online database. Data from different classes are stored and accumulated in the database. This real-time database approach speeds up the data gathering process and shifts the data entry and cleansing from instructor to engaging students in the process of data production.

• ### Statistics and Error Rates in Death Penalty Cases

In this activity, students explore calculations with simple rates and proportions, and basic time series data, in the context of news coverage of an important statistical study. From 1973 to 1995, a total of 4578 US death penalty cases went through the full course of appeals, with the result that 68% of the sentences were overturned! Reports of the study in various newspapers and magazines fueled public debate about capital punishment.
• ### Nature of the chi-square distribution

In this activity, students learn the true nature of the chi-square and F distributions in lecture notes (PowerPoint file) and an Excel simulation. This leads to a discussion of the properties of the two distributions. Once the sum of squares aspect is understood, it is only a short logical step to explain why a sample variance has a chi-square distribution and a ratio of two variances has an F-distribution. In a subsequent activity, instances of when the chi-square and F-distributions are related to the normal or t-distributions (e.g. Chi-square = z2, F = t2) will be illustrated. Finally, the activity will conclude with a brief overview of important applications of chi-square and F distributions, such as goodness-of-fit tests and analysis of variance.
• ### Simulating Size and Power Using a 10-Sided Die

This group activity illustrates the concepts of size and power of a test through simulation. Students simulate binomial data by repeatedly rolling a ten-sided die, and they use their simulated data to estimate the size of a binomial test. They carry out further simulations to estimate the power of the test. After pooling their data with that of other groups, they construct a power curve. A theoretical power curve is also constructed, and the students discuss why there are differences between the expected and estimated curves. Key words: Power, size, hypothesis testing, binomial distribution
• ### Simulating the Effect of Sample Size on the Sampling Distribution of the Mean

This activity allows students to explore the relationship between sample size and the variability of the sampling distribution of the mean. Students use a Java applet to specify the shape of the "parent" distribution and two sample sizes. The simulation then samples from the parent distribution to approximate the sampling distributions for the two sample sizes. Students can see both sampling distributions at the same time making them easy to compare. The activity also allows students to determine the probability of extreme sample means for the different sample sizes so that they can discover that small sample sizes are much more likely than large samples to produce extreme values. Keywords: sampling distribution, sample size, simulation
• ### Count the Fs: Why a Sample instead of a Census?

This interactive lecture activity motivates the need for sampling. "Why sample, why not just take a census?" Under time pressure, students count the number of times the letter F appears in a paragraph. The activity demonstrates that a census, even when it is easy to take, may not give accurate information. Under the time pressure measurement errors are more frequently made in the census rather than in a small sample.
• ### Psychic test

This activity illustrates the convergence of long run relative frequency to the true probability. The psychic ability of a student from the class is studied using an applet. The student is asked to repeatedly guess the outcome of a virtual coin toss. The instructor enters the student's guesses and the applet plots the percentage of correct answers versus the number of attempts. With the applet, many guesses can be entered very quickly. If the student is truly a psychic, the percentage correct will converge to a value above 0.5.
• ### Using Your Hair to Understand Descriptive Statistics

The purpose of this activity is to enhance students' understanding of various descriptive measures. In particular, by completing this hands-on activity students will experience a visual interpretation of a mean, median, outlier, and the concept of distance-to-mean.