# Conference Paper

• ### Conceptual understanding of the arithmetic mean

The present study had four purposes: a) to investigate children and adults' understanding of four component properties of the arithmetic mean, b) to determine the relative difficulty of these four component properties of the mean, c) to determine the differential potential of varied problem formats to facilitate understanding of the arithmetic mean, and d) to discuss differences between different types of methods for contributing to research about, and investigating understanding of the arithmetic mean.

• ### Issues in assessing conceptual understanding in probability and statistics

Research has shown that adults have intuitions about probability and statistics that, in many cases, are at odds with accepted theory. The existence of these strongly-held ideas may explain, in part, why learning probability and statistics is especially problematic. One objective of introductory instruction ought to be to help students replace these informal conceptions with more normative ones. Based on this research, items are currently being developed to assess conceptual understanding before and after instruction.

• ### Feeling certain about uncertain things: Assessing affect and attitudes in statistics learning

While many teachers of statistics are likely to focus on transmitting knowledge, many students are likely to have trouble with statistics due to non-cognitive factors, such as (math) anxiety or negative attitudes towards statistics, which can impede learning of statistics, or hinder the extent to which students will develop useful statistical intuitions and apply what they have learned outside the classroom. This paper explores the role of attitudes in the learning of statistics, examines existing instruments for assessing attitudes and beliefs of students, and provides suggestions for methods teachers can use to gauge where students stand on some non-cognitive factors.

• ### Obstacles to Effective Teaching of Probability and Statistics

This paper describes four main categories of issues related to the effective teaching of probability and statistics at the precollege level. These issues relate to: 1. The training or retraining of mathematics teachers to teach statistics. 2. The role of probability and statistics in the mathematics curriculum. 3. The need for connecting research in difficulties students have learning probability and statistics concepts to classroom instruction, and 4. Assessment of student learning. Recommendations for dealing with these issues are offered.

• ### The use of hypercard for facilitating assessment; A library of exemplars for reifying statistical concepts

The National Council for Teachers of Mathematics have led the way in developing new standards for mathematics instruction and assessment. This paper describes what we call an authentic statistics project for eighth graders using computers for both instruction and assessment purpose.

• ### New ways to measure skills of problem solving, communication, reasoning, and connectedness

This paper describes an authentic statistics project for eighth graders using computers for both instruction and assessment purposes.

• ### Tapemeasure: Video as data for statistical investigations

This article discusses TapeMeasure, a videotape-based data system. TapeMeasure is a sytem which allows students to make measurements on a videotape. They can choose particular frames to measure by using a VCR-like interface that allows them to advacne the tape a freme at a time or by choosing a particular indexed video segment from a directory. An investigation is described that involved 7th and 8th grade students in an exploration of variables that might influence their running spped. Students designed an experiment, videotaped a race, and made measurements from the video tape. They analyzed the resulting data to determine which variable(s) were most closely correlated with running speed.

• ### The role of an interactive software program in facilitating probabilistic reasoning

The first part of the presentation will describe an interactive self-paced instructional program developed on the Apple Macintosh computer. A demonstration version of the program will provide illustrations of the program. Illustrations of how students' concepts of chance are solicited and challenged by the program will also be demonstrated.

• ### Addressing Misconceptions in Learning Power Analysis

The goal of this paper is to report on the development of a dynamic computer-based simulation of the concept of statistical power and the misconceptions students have regarding this concept. The paper will include three sections briefly summarized below: (1) considerations in constructing a dynamic computer-based simulation for statistical instruction; (2) discerning misconceptions and addressing their remediation and (3) plans for future development.

• ### Reforming the introductory statistics course

This paper discusses the movements involving reform of statistical education, both at the college and precollege level. In addition, one model for a revised introductory course, based on the two reform movements is included. This course is based on the following components: Involvement with real data, emphasis on exploring data, use of new software and technology, oral and written communication, and confronting misconceptions